< img height="1" width="1" style="display:none;" alt="" src="https://px.ads.linkedin.com/collect/?pid=5785916&fmt=gif" />


Meet KingKonree(KKR) at 135th Canton Fair: Booth No: 11.1 C05-06. April 23th to 27th 2024

assessing the potential of a natural wetland in grey water treatment (a case study in cape coast--central region of ghana).

by:KingKonree     2020-04-10
Introduction ash water is part of the domestic wastewater without Black Water (
Water containing feces).
It is the drain pipe for bathtub and shower tray, washbasin, sand washing machine, and may also contain high
Strengthen kitchen waste water.
The ash water for washing dishes, showers, sinks and laundry rooms is the largest component of residential wastewater.
It is estimated that about 80% of the water in the country is used as wastewater.
Ash water, as part of domestic wastewater, contains pathogens, microorganisms, suspended solids and biodegradable organic matter, nutrients, heavy metals and other toxic pollutants [1].
Due to the increase of industry, the development of land area and the rapid growth of population, the problem of water pollution has intensified.
Now, the waterway has become the recipient of wastewater with pollutants.
As wastewater from upstream communities becomes part of the water supply in downstream communities, pollution from surface water supply becomes more serious.
Water Pollution Control begins when the concentration of the added substance poses a danger to humans, or when water is degraded to a point that is not suitable for further use.
Highly refined and well controlled plants provide modern public health protection for community water supply and purification of wastewater treatment.
Any natural waterway contains dissolved gases that are usually balanced with the atmosphere in the air.
In this way, fish and other aquatic organisms can get the oxygen they need to breathe.
The amount of oxygen that the water holds saturated depends on the temperature and follows the law that the solubility of the gas decreases as the temperature increases.
Biodegradable or oxidized substances in wastewater use up oxygen through the action of bacteria and related organisms that breathe with available dissolved oxygen gas.
If this activity is carried out at a fast enough speed to severely suppress oxygen levels, it will affect the natural fauna of the stream;
If the oxygen is completely exhausted, there will be a situation where the oxygen is exhausted, thus choking the aerobic organisms in the stream.
In this case, it is said that the stream is a septic tank and is likely to cause damage to vision and smell.
It can also reduce the use of water bodies (eg.
As a source of water supply, entertainment, irrigation, etc).
It may also increase the incidence of water Borneo disease.
Due to the negative effects associated with water pollution, many natural and artificial technologies have been studied.
In these studies, the application of wetlands in wastewater treatment was found.
Although the value of wetlands in fish and wildlife conservation has been decades old, in recent biological and human periods, wetlands are resources, sinks and Transformers for a variety of chemicals, as well as biological and genetic materials. They (Wetlands)
It is sometimes described as \"kidneys of the landscape\" because they are downstream receivers of water and waste from natural and human sources.
Trends in wetlands as a sink of chemicals for all species encourage researchers in their 1970 s in the United States to study the role of natural wetlands, especially in the areas where they are found to be rich in wastewater, so as to recover clean water back to groundwater and surface water [2].
Although the application of wetlands in wastewater treatment is well known in the United States and Europe, the situation in Africa and Ghana is different.
The latest progress in wetland research in Ghana can only be traced back [3]and [4]
He works in the Asanti region of Ghana on natural and artificial systems.
The natural wetlands being studied existed before the university was established, and gray water has been obtained from some communities around the university.
However, some people live by the river and fish in the river when the children swim in the river.
In addition, some residents use the stream for family life, while some farmers use it to irrigate their crops.
This study aims to find out whether gray water entering the wetland is treated to an acceptable level according to the standards of the Ghana Environmental Protection Agency and to make suggestions on how to use the wetland effectively and efficiently.
Experiment with different samples of ash water, soil and plants in 7 weeks;
The analysis was carried out.
In addition, in order to use a combined sample of gray water, three samples were collected within two hours (6am-8am).
Samples were taken twice a week, but only once in the first week.
The parameters analyzed included COD, pH, nitrate and nitrate, total phosphorus, total coliform, suspended solids, turbidity and heavy metals.
For classification and identification, soil samples and major plant species of natural wetlands under study were collected.
Biochemical aerobic (BOD)
The test is used to measure the waste of the treatment plant and determine the efficiency of the plant (
From BODremoval)
Control the process of the factory.
It is also used to determine the impact of emissions on the receiving waters.
A major drawback of the Bods test is the amount of time (5 days)
Results need to be obtained.
Two bottles of bod were completely filled with diluted water.
Fill the extra bod bottle with the diluted water section and then add the sample measuring volume to the partially filled bottle.
The diluted water is not added until the bottle is fully filled.
Because the meter method is used, oxygen is needed (DO)
Measurements, initial and final DO measurements are performed on the same bottle, unlike the modified Winkler program in which the same analysis requires two different bottles.
Principle of chemical aerobic (COD)
Using the open reflux method: most types of organic matter are oxidized by a boiling mixture of chromium and sulfuric acid.
The sample is returned in a strongly acidic solution known to have an excessive amount of potassium bicarbonate ([K. sub. 2][Cr. sub. 2][O. sub. 7]).
Remaining unrestored after digestion [K. sub. 2][Cr. sub. 2][O. sub. 7]
Titration with ammonium ferrous to determine the amount [K. sub. 2][Cr. sub. 2][O. sub. 7]
Calculate the consumption and oxidized substances with oxygen equivalent.
Results and discussion in addition to conductivity, the inlet water concentration of all parameters in the table exceeded the EPA Ghana allowable limit.
Although phosphate and total coliform wastewater during dry and wet periods is higher than the EPA Ghana guidelines, all other parameters show a high level of treatment consistent with the guidelines already stated.
Total suspended solids (TSS)
Very high removal efficiency is shown during dry and wet weather.
The high removal efficiency observed in dry weather may be due to low speed making deposition easier [5].
This may also be due to the wetland covering vegetation combined with sediment, reducing erosion by capturing the sediment, interrupting the flow of water, and building mud coal [1]2].
The following figure shows the southern part of the wetland in the study. [
Figure 1 slightly]
The low removal efficiency observed in wet weather may be due to the high precipitation that occurs during sampling resulting in surface runoff entering the wetland, and lead to the reduction of the score and settlement of the combined sediment in the wetland compared with the traveling speed, the speed of suspended solids (draggingforce).
Therefore, the particles remain suspended and eventually discharged as wastewater.
Differences in removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand observed during drying and humidity (BOD)
Chemical needs (COD)
This may be related to hydrological changes in wetlands.
The hydrology of the wetland has a significant impact on the nutrients input into the wetland and the biological and chemical activities occurring in the wetland [2].
In the rainy season, the weather is colder, metabolism and biology
Low microbial activity;
However, the biomass and activity of microorganisms increased at high temperatures, resulting in the removal of BOD5 and COD [6].
Table 1 above shows that all heavy metal concentrations analyzed in the study area during dry and wet periods are lower than the maximum allowable levels discharged by the Ghana EPA into the water body (Table1).
During dry weather, the manganese level in wastewater is higher than its level of water inflow;
This may be due to the presence of anaerobic conditions in the wetland resulting in a reduction in the back potential of approximately 225 mV [lower manganese converted from manganese to manganese compounds]2].
The equation is shown below. Mn[O. sub. 2]+ 2[e. sup. -]+ 4[H. sup. +][right arrow][Mn. sup. 2+]+2[H. sub. 2]
O The problem now is, in the case of phosphate, conductivity, and total coliform removal, what caused an exception observation.
Table 1 clearly indicates that the wetland can remove phosphate from the ash water, but not below the allowed level.
Removal is by adsorption of phosphorus on clay particles, which is considered to be a chemical combination of negatively charged phosphate with positively charged edges of the clay, and the substitution of phosphate in the clay matrix []2].
Most wetland plants obtain phosphorus from the soil;
The deposition of clay particles on the surface of phosphorus is an indirect way in which phosphorus can be used for the biological composition of wetlands.
The wetland is unable to remove phosphorus to an acceptable level, probably because the phosphorus content of the wetland is higher than the level that the environment can handle.
The observation of conductivity may be due to the catalytic chemical reaction at high temperature during drying, resulting in more ions in the wetland.
It must be noted that the removal of conductivity is mainly through the attachment (
Chemical removal);
Plant absorption does not contribute much to the removal of Yin and Yang ions.
The opposite happened during wet weather, where the chemical activity was low and only 19. 8 % (
Estimated from Table 1)
Removal efficiency.
Although the removal of total coliform does not comply with EPAGhana guidelines, it can be inferred from Table 1 above that 78 coliform bacteria have been significantly removed.
1 and 72% in wet and dry seasons. According to [7]; [8]
When the inflation concentration is high, the removal efficiency is high;
The removal efficiency of coliform bacteria is almost always greater than 90%.
This may be the reason for removal during the rainy season.
When the inlet water concentration is less than the background concentration, the removal efficiency is low.
The removal of indicated bacteria in the wetland may be related to the removal of solids and the hydraulic residence time.
The conclusions and suggestions drawn from the study are as follows: Although the removal efficiency of cadmium in wetlands is 100%, the removal of suspended solids (98. 1%)
Very encouraging because the latter is more important in terms of quality than the former.
The results show that wetlands have high potential in removing pollutants from ash water.
Wetlands achieve this goal through plant species, plant species play an important role in the process of treatment, and soil types also span Sandy sand and wet sand.
It can be clearly seen from the discussion that the hydrology of the area has a great impact on the performance of wetlands in terms of treatment, so it is suggested that wetlands can work effectively and efficiently.
* The maximum allowable level of some parameters must be completed, such as nitrite salt that has not yet been completed.
* Plants must be collected regularly in this type of wetland to ensure that the pollutants removed are not introduced into the wetland when the plant dies and breaks down.
* Although this study was conducted during the small rainy season, the level of pollutant removal is high if primary treatment is performed (
Deposition tank)
The quality of wastewater will be improved.
* Properly guide the drain pipe with a balanced pipeline to ensure that the flow on the wetland is optimized and monitored, which will help prevent the wetland from being overused and run efficiently and efficiently.
* Public education should be carried out on the economic and environmental importance of wetlands.
* There should be laws to prevent the misuse and misuse of wetlands.
* Further research should be carried out to determine the amount of rainfall or level affecting wetland treatment. References [1]
Metcalf and Eddy, 2003, \"Wastewater Engineering\": treatment, disposal and reuse.
Macquarie\'s fourth edition-Hill, New York. Pg. 13-27; 47-111. [2]Gosselink G. J. and Mitsch, J. W.
Publisher: John Willie & Sons, 2000, wetlandPg. 3-5; 25-264; 692. [3]Mazola, A.
2006, \"Assessing the potential of natural wetlands in gray water treatment\", M. Sc.
Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Kwame, Ghana. [4]Niyonzima, S.
, 2006, \"assessing the potential of constructed wetlands in gray water treatment\", M. Sc.
Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Kwame, Ghana. [5]Kadlec, R. H. and Knight, R. L.
, 1996, \"deal with wetlands\", publisher of CRC Press/Lewis, Boca Raton, California. Pg. 893. [6]Steinmann, C. R. , Weinhart, S. , Melzer, A.
2003, \"effective wastewater treatment combination system for lagoons and constructed wetlands \". Res. 2003; 37: 2035-2042. [7]Gerheart, R. A. , Klopp, F. and Allen, G.
1999, the pilot project of \"artificial free surface wetland treatment and receiving wastewater\" was fully launched. In D. A. Hammer, ed.
Lewis publisher Chelsea, MI, Pg, an artificial wetland for wastewater treatment. 121-137. [8]Gersberg, R. M. , Lyon, S. R. , Brenner, R. And Akins, B. V.
, 1989, \"Integrated Wastewater treatment using artificial wetlands\", D. Case study of gravel MarshA. Hammer, ed.
Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, Pg, artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment. 145-152. A. E. Duncan * (1), E. Awuah (2), D. K. Dodoo (1), A. Sam (3), Y. Ameyaw (3)(1)
Department of Chemistry, Cape Coast University, CapeCoast-Ghana (2)
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Science and Technology-Ghana (3)
Department of Science and Education, winniba University of Education-
Author of Ghana * Newsletter
Email: bert_ebo @ yahoo
Custom message
Chat Online 编辑模式下无法使用
Leave Your Message inputting...