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comparison of home lead dust reduction techniques on hard surfaces: the new jersey assessment of cleaning techniques trial. (articles).

by:KingKonree     2020-03-23
High Efficiency Particulate Air filter (HEPA)
Collect the vacuum of particles> 0. 3 [micro]
Sodium phosphate (TSP)
A detergent that claims to selectively remove lead has been included in the hud guidelines for the evaluation and control of lead-based painkillers in housing without systematically verifying its effectiveness.
At the beginning of this study, both the HEPA vacuum cleaner and the TSP were quite expensive, and it was not easy to find in the city retail center that people had high levels of use and handling
Phosphate Detergent
A randomized controlled trial was conducted at City High School
Risk families in northern New Jersey to determine if there are more readily available and cheaper pricesphosphate, non-
Detergent and non-detergent
HEPA vacuum can also perform TSP and HEPA vacuum in the cleaning scheme.
The home is divided into one of three cleaning methods: teaspoon/HEPA vacuum, teaspoon/non
HEPA vacuum or non-vacuumTSP/non-HEPA vacuum. Change inlog-
The modified lead load was used in the hybrid model, and the effects of the three cleaning techniques on the floor, windowsill and window slot of the unpaved carpet were compared respectively.
After we adjusted the baselinelead load
The HEPA vacuum creates a greater reduction on the hard plate [19%;
95% confidence intervals (CI), 3-38%]
, But the HEPA vacuum creates a greater reduction on the windowsill (22%; 95% CI, 11-32%)
A larger reduction in window slots (16%; 95% CI, -4 to 33%). Thenon-
The TSP on the window slot has been greatly reduced (21%; 95% CI, -2 to50%)
, But on a hard board, the TSP produces a greater reduction (5%; 95% CI, -12to 19%)
And windowsill (8%; 95% CI, -5 to 20%).
There is a greater reduction in TSP/HEPA on the windowsill (28%; 95% CI, 18-37%)
A large reduction in window slots (2%; 95% CI, -24 to 23%)
And on-TSP/non-
The HEPA method produces a large reduction on the hard floor (13%; 95% CI, -5 to 34%).
Because both vacuum and detergent cannot produce consistent results on different surface types, the use of low
Phosphorus detergent and non-phosphorus detergent
Support the HEPA vacuum in temporary controls.
Key words: clean, Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, HEPA, lead, trisodium phosphate.
Perspective of environmental health 889-893 (2002). [
Online July 24, 2002
Research shows that indoor dust is the main way for children to contact lead (1-3)
Included is a summary analysis that shows that this relationship exists at dust lead levels, significantly lower than the old lead levels in the United States. S.
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
Customs clearance standards after emission reduction and the United StatesS.
Environmental Protection Department (EPA)
Level of guidance (100, 500,800 [micro]g/[ft. sup. 2]
For floor, windowsill and well, respectively)(4).
HUD and America since thenS.
EPA has revised their floor and window clearance
Risk assessment criteria to 40 and 250 [1 [micro]g/[ft. sup. 2]
The standard of clearance is 400 [micro]g/[ft. sup. 2]
Reserved for window slots (5,6). Charney et al. (7)
An effort to reduce dust indicates a reduction in blood lead levels of 39 [amean lead children] by 18%micro]g/dL. Lioy et al. (8)
Displaying regular professional cleaning can significantly reduce lead levels on the surfaces of avatars, windowsills, and other homes.
In a randomized trial, the mean blood lead for ddlers was 12 [micro]
G/dL, Rhoads and others. (3)
Using data from the same study, maternal education and these bi-weekly cleanings resulted in an average 17% decrease in blood lead compared to control children.
Other tests examined the cleaning effect, indicating that the blood lead level did not decrease significantly after cleaning, or only cleaning supplies and educational materials were provided, and no cleaning was guaranteed (9,10)
Or in an active smelting community with more modern housing (11).
The study of actual cleaning of urban houses shows that regular cleaning can not only reduce the level of dust lead, but also directly reduce the level of blood lead.
The HUD guide provides a cleaning agreement for two situations involving lead-based hazard control: temporary dust control measures (two-
Step cleaning process)
, And the leadership to reduce the cleanup after the intervention of the hazard (three-
Step cleaning process). Thetwo-
The step process was evaluated in this study.
Using bothhigh-
Particulate air filter (HEPA)
Vacuum and sodium phosphate (TSP)
Detergent is recommended by Detergent, but these specifications are necessary for effective cleaning, which is limited (12,13).
The basic principle of using a HEPA vacuum cleaner is based on a HEPAfilter that retains all particles> 0. 3 [micro]
Therefore, the emission of particles can be reduced by the vacuum placed on the cleaning surface.
A Canadian study suggests that the use of standard portable vacuum cleaners without HEPA filters may be related to high levels of dust in the air.
Dust can then be relocated on the floor to provide some support for the requirements of the HEPA filter (14,15).
Although the HUD guide allows the use of non-
They recommend TSPdetergents (
Detergent defined as at least 5% trisodium phosphate)
Because it is thought to tend to cover the surface of lead particles (
Defined here as particles with high lead content)
The use of phosphate or polyphosphate groups reduces the electrostatic interaction with the surface and can be removed more easily.
In a recent laboratory study in the United StatesS.
However, EPA is no lower than many-
Phosphate household detergents that remove lead particles from a variety of complete/smooth substrates, such as painted wood and felt (16).
The matrix for comparing detergents may not represent those old city houses. Rich et al. (17)
In a study of dust
The lead sampling method found that the teaspoon did not appear to remove lead specifically, because although the lead load and dust load levels decreased after cleaning with the teaspoon, the lead concentration did not decrease.
These studies, as well as concerns about the impact of phosphate waste on the water quality and availability of urban retail stores, led EPA to praise the use of other non-
Teaspoon detergent in the cleaning agreement (18).
To determine whether the TSP and HEPA vacuum are always better than the more readily available cleaning methods, we conducted a randomized trial comparing the cleaning methods recommended by TSP with the other two cheaper methods.
Learn the choice of materials and methods for home.
We identified potential home studies through the recommendation of city leaders
Poisoning Prevention Program or response to an email from the New Jersey Department of Health and elderly services to families with elevated blood lead children.
The researchers arranged a family visit with the respondents to determine eligibility.
If a), the family is eligible
They have a child with lead levels above 10 [micro]g/dL (index child), b)
They have at least four windows for sampling and cleaning, c)
When the family first learned about the rise in blood lead levels, children of the index lived at home all the time, d)
The family will remain at home until the cleaning/sampling visit is completed.
As an incentive, parents received a $25 initial screening gift certificate at the grocery store (first)
Cleaning/sampling costs $75 (second)visit.
Informed consent was obtained for all study participants. Randomization.
By opening the numbered sealed envelope, the home is randomly assigned to one of three learning methods.
Jobs are performed using a series of variable-length sequential random blocks (
Three or six houses).
In each block, the homework is done in a ratio of 1: 1, so that at the end of each block, there is exactly one
There are three rooms for each cleaning method.
Random grouping was performed after screening visits and before cleaning/sampling visits to ensure that researchers remain blind when determining eligibility for sampling/cleaning and surfaces.
However, the personnel were not blind at the time of examination/sampling.
We identified 135 eligible families, 127 of which were cleaned.
Residents of these eight houses did not clean before cleaning.
Cleaning procedures.
According to the hard surface protocol recommended in the HUD guidelines, the home is cleaned as a mutual measure to remove lead
Contaminated dust (11)
Use one of the following combinations of detergent and vacuum:)
Vacuum cleaner (Malvern, PA), b)
World vacuum model 6865 (Bloomington, IL)
No HEPA filter or c)Spic `n\'Span (non-TSP)
And Eureka World vacuum model 6865 without HEPA filter (
Based on its retail presence in northern New Jersey).
Every surface is vacuumed (at 1-3 min/[m. sup. 2])
Then wet with detergent.
Each family has at least two full rooms cleaned and two windows with surrounding areas (
Total number of rooms/Windows).
We use the same method for all surface cleaning within a home.
Sampling procedure.
HUD dust agreement-
Wipe sampling has been described elsewhere (19). HUD dust-
Wipe samples were collected on four windowsills, two window troughs, and two hardboards throughout the house.
We sampled more windowsills in each home compared to the floor and window slots to increase detection apre-
/Cleaning difference after loading lead.
The researchers selected the sites based on the child\'s accessibility.
Only one window in each room is sampled if possible.
The kitchen is one of four rooms to sample. Pre-
The cleaned samples are collected directly next to each other, and the cleaned samples are collected at least 1 hour after cleaning to allow suspended dust to settle.
Laboratory analysis
Wipe the towel with 20 ml concentrated nitric acid for each baby and put it in a 120 digestion liner (
Trace Metal, lead
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