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feasting in homeric epic.

by:KingKonree     2020-10-15
The banquet plays an important role in the epic.
Elements of the homic feast--
Value, practice, vocabulary and equipment-
Interesting comparison with archaeological records.
These comparisons enable us to detect the possible contribution of different time periods to cumulative composite images that appear to be about 700 B. c.
Homic\'s drinking practices are particularly relevant to the drinking history of the Aegean Sea.
By analyzing the social and ideological attitudes of drinking in the epic based on archaeological records, we can gain insight into the prehistoric history of the epic and the prehistoric history of drinking itself.
In the feast of HOMERIC, there are a lot of things that are usually understood as feasts in Homeric epic. (1)
The feast can be said to be the most frequent event in Odyssey, except for the battle, the same is true of Iliad.
Obviously, this is not only an activity for heroes, it is also an activity that helps to prove that they are indeed heroes.
So it seems that they are shown at every opportunity to do so that the feeling of realism sometimes disappears ---
Just like a little child would always imagine a king with a crown, no matter how inappropriate the pose is.
In the Iliad 9, for example, auduthews are involved in two complete
Savor the feast quickly and continuously for one night: first in the residence of agamennon (Il. 9. 89-92)
Almost in the sanctuary of Achilles. 9. 199-222).
Later in samenight, when they came back from the spy mission, he and Diomedes sat down again to eat, drink and pour (10. 576-579).
Odyssey 15-similar sequences occur16.
First of all, Telemachos and his companions prepare meals, meals and drinks together after arriving in Ithaca early in the morning (15. 500-502).
Once the telemarketer has completed the customary after-sales service
He gave a speech at the dinner party and went to the yard of yumayos.
He just got there and sat down for another roast, bread and wine (16. 46-55).
Later, in Odyssey 20, two complete
The scale feast seems to meet each other, and the scene has undergone a disturbing sudden change: a hunter held by an auduthews Palace completes the slaughter and cooking of the animals (20. 248-256)
The other, apparently including the same people, held in the jungle of Apollo, seems to be before the first person starts to stride forward (20. 276-280). To a modern-
All of this seemed tedious to stop for dinner and drink.
It interrupts the flow of the story (
Especially in the Odyssey)
It will distract us from the plot, especially since it often takes up a lot of lines and tends to be expressed in repetitive, predictable language.
In fact, the feast scene is one of the most common formulaic scenes in the layout and vocabulary of the epic, juxtaposed with other genre scenes (such as armed. (2)
Even if they are condensed into a few lines, they often retain the character, often appearing in a simplified version that more fully describes the scene, using selected stock lines, phrases, and vocabulary, these words often appear in longer accounts as pars pro to shorthand to imply the whole account.
In this way, at least some of the unique features of the fully described Homeric feast (meat-eating,wine-
Drink alcohol and include God through ceremonies \"sacrifice\" and libation)
It is usually explicitly presented or implied.
Breakfast (eriston)
It can be seen that it is a feast (see, e. g. ,Il. 24. 123-
125, where the elements of the feast [allow]
\"Sacrifice\" in the literal sense]
Consumption of a sheep).
So, as described, whenever named heroes prepare and have a meal with their companions, whenever they arrive somewhere and receive warm hospitality, and before they leave, before the end of every heroic cause, whenever they want to be on the side of God.
Feast everywhere, continuous-
This is what Homonic heroes do with the company of every opportunity.
Within this framework, however, there are a number of changes, especially the emphasis designed to accommodate a particular environment.
At one end of the spectrum is a feast whose main purpose is to appease God (
For example, the feast in Odyssey 3 related to the cow\'s attack on Athena
Most of the descriptions are devoted to the complex rituals surrounding the laughter, dismemberment and cooking of animals.
At the other end, mainly the Feast of the secular, in which the ritual aspect is either omitted from the description or reduced to odd words or lines ---
Enough to show that the animal is still sacred (\"sacrificed\")
Before slaughter, God gets the meat and wine they deserve by burning and libation, even if it is not more perfunctory than the grace that is automatically said before meals.
In practice, however, there is no very clear dividing line between the two types, the difference mainly lies in the number of details of the feast elements, describing the process from slaughter to consumption.
When they are not described (
Or not detailed)
We have no reason to believe that there is any substantial difference between the basic methods and procedures involved.
As a result, umaos feasts him in Odyssey 14. 72-114 and 14. 414-
456 is a earthly feast for all intents and purposes, but most of the elements contained therein are also the standard elements of the more open God --
Centered on the feast of sacrifice, such as Athena in Odyssey 3 or Apollo in Iliad 1.
In this regard, the feast of homic forms a continuum, starting with the complete details --by-
Step by step about the slaughter, cooking and consumption of meat, as well as the mixing, brewing and drinking of wines that can take up dozens of lines to two lines quickly
Have a drink before bed.
In fact, although the epic clearly placates the importance of God through animal sacrifice, there is a lot of the essence of divine inclusion in the Hominick feast ---
Including a clear feast of sacrifice-
This seems strangely contradictory in this regard. As G. S.
Kirk pointed out that after the sacrifice, the hero of Homer began to engage in the secular cause of meat --
Eating at an almost invisible rate, with the exception of the treatment of the \"stripping part\", there is almost no ritual shift. \" (3)
In the end, God is seen as the most important factor of sacrifice, not as direct (if unseen)
Companions in the feast, heroes of Death (
We were told that they were actually past [Od. 7. 201]).
From a practical point of view, this method has certain advantages for human banquets, because it eliminates any obvious difference between sacrifice and banquets, in most cases, the sacrifice to God seems to be just a good excuse for the other side ,(4)
As opposed, all feasts are made to ensure the divine by simply letting the gods share their symbolic food or wine.
It is especially convenient because in their veins God has ichor instead of blood (Il. 5. 341-342), (5)
They don\'t actually eat deadly meat, so they are happy with the burning smell around the extracted bone (
Can\'t Eat Anyway)
, Leaving most of the more edible parts to their mortalsfeasters.
Especially, only in Odyssey 14. 435-
436 is part of the uncooked meat prepared for Hermes and nymphs ---
A method that can be said to be less complicated has found many related factors in folk practice, such as a bowl of milk left for pixels, or a broken meat pie left for Santa Claus.
The fact that God particularly appreciates--
If literally, it should mean eating hundreds of cow force, cooking and ---
It seems to be a good excuse for that very big person
The scale of the public feast implied by the Poseidon sacrifice in Odyssey 3.
Of course, another useful aspect of this is that attending the feast also brings obligations to mortals (Il. 4. 343-346, 18. 546)
For the gods (Il. 4. 45-46).
From another point of view, we can probably distinguish between the two main types of feasts, which are different in organization.
One is a feast provided by the owner at his own expense to his companions or guests, for example, when agamennon and Achilles prepare a feast in the sanctuary of Troy (Il. 9. 89-92);
When feastis\'s warm hospitality Alkinoos, Circe, or Eumaios is offered to the vagrant auduthews (Il. 9. 199-222);
Or, when Alkinoos offers a feast for all the people after the phaeacian Convention (Od. 8. 39). (6)
The other is the public feast, which is a part of his contribution, such as the \"bring a bottle\" party held in menelos\'s palace to commemorate Telemachos after his daughter got married. Od. 4. 621-624)
, Nestor arranged a community feast in honor of Poseidon, contributing nine bulls around each settlement of Pylos (Od. 3. 4-67)
, OrPenelope description of the appropriate banquet behavior of potential customersbesuitors (Od. 18. 277-279).
The outdoor feasts of auduthews and his companions, who capture their own food and share the food they bring or receive collectively, may also fall into this category (cf. , e. g. , Od. 10. 155-184). (7)
Not to mention the feast though (
Like everything else)
In epic, mainly the realm of heroes and gods, there is enough ambiguity in both classes, which suggests that almost everyone can join at some point (cf. Od. 15. 373-379).
In an ideal world, the Shepherd has a lot of meat (Od. 4. 87-88)
And even reapers share in Royal cattle-
The scones depict the shield of onachills. (8)
In any case, these two distinct types of feasts and public feasts are in stark contrast to their antics of day-to-day feasts in Ithaca, at the expense of the absent othews, against the will of his son, to kill and eat the cake of Apollo in disregard of a clear ban for the sake of the companions of auduthews (Od. 11. 108-117,12. 264-419).
To a large extent, the suitor also violated the code related to the feast in other ways ---
By mistreating the Palace of the servant enothews, and by their rough treatment of audthews, they disguised themselves as a begging beggar.
Similarly, other acclaimed villains, such as Aigisthos, and even Herakles, have broken the ethics of the banquet for their guests at the table (Od. 11. 409-415, 21. 26-30; cf. also9. 478-479).
The ingredients for the homic feast are usually meat, grain (
It may be implied, or it may be clear, in the form of bread), (9)
Wine, the most important thing is to emphasize the consumption of meat in the form of livestock, sheep, goats and pigs-
Sometimes, with divine assistance-
Hunting games such as goats (Od. 9. 155)or adeer (Od. 10. 156-177).
This emphasis on meat can at least be seen as an epic ideal (
Any member of ahomic or pre-is unlikely
No matter how noble, Homer\'s audience eats meat as Homer\'s heroes do ---
However, as we will see, it has been consumed relatively widely in certain sectors of Aegean Society).
In epic, meat in the form of flock and herd is a regular indicator of personal value-
His own personal property. -
Although others may take care of the animals on his behalf. (10)
Ideally, it comes from specially fattening animals that take time and cost to produce.
So while it is a renewable resource, it cannot be updated quickly-
Therefore, the despair considered by telemachoscontem is the tangible wealth of his father\'s legacy and his reckless splurge on the herd and the flock. (11)
This means that only rich elites can eat meat normally (
Although not every day, let Aaron eat every meal)
And others are mainly because of the kindness of the formatting in some regulated occasions.
In fact, this is the \"excuse\" of divine encouragement, or at least the reason why divine participation in the epic feast.
This not only recognizes the meat that cannot last --
Eat the activities of designated heroes, but it provides the opportunity for the festival, in which meat may be eaten by a very large number of people.
The observation or belief that meat gives strength and courage (
Even if it is sometimes false courage8. 229-232)
It just adds to its desirable quality.
However, in order to avoid the monotony of the diet we think of as heroism, many other \"things\" exist ([
Text that cannot be copied in ASCII. ])
It\'s not obvious, but it signals a lot--
At least at the domestic banquet--
What may be these things, we were not told but the black pudding (Od. 20. 25-26)
, Cheese, fish and other seafood, onions, leeks, olives, honey, and a variety of fruits, including apples, pears, pomegranates and figs, are all mentioned in different parts of the epic ((There is often a metaphor)
And it may be that the audience of homic thinks it may be included in it. (12)
The importance (sea)
Note salt many times (e. g. , Il. 9. 215; Od. 17. 455,23. 270).
We were given several descriptions of the slaughter process, although it is not clear whether the detailed changes have any systemic significance unless they may be appropriate for different types of animals (
Suitable for different gods).
Only the horn of the cow is gold plated (Od. 3. 437-438; though cf. also Il. 10. 294)
Not only does this mark an ancient and respectable hero hosting a very special occasion, but it seems to be more determined to mark this particular massacre, representing a well-planned feast (
Because in the history of Greece, public offerings often appear)
Rather than a traditional prelude to a feast. The animals (
If more than one)
Can be arranged in a circle, or (if one)
Participants can arrange a circle around the animals.
At this point, the hair of the head may be cut off and thrown into the fire, and the barley will be scattered. (13)
The tool used to cut the victim\'s throat can be an axe or knife, or blood can be collected (
Maybe used to make black pudding).
Every time we hear anything about the barbecue, the standard way to cook is the barbecue, which is obviously what the real hero should do on his own, rather than leaving it to the subordinates (Il. 19. 316-317; cf. Od. 15. 321-324;
Compare the behavior of the suitor, Od. 4. 681-683). (14)
After slaughtering and peeling, the meat is chopped and put into the meat ([
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ])
It is then baked on the fire, then raised, distributed directly or placed on the board for subsequent distribution.
In the context of the emphasis on the sacrifice of God, this has previously been described as the thigh bone being cut off, wrapped in fat, covered with symbolic strips of meat, soaked in wine, burned in [
Text that cannot be reproduced in ascii. ](
Pieces of wood peeled2. 425).
It is also at this point that the internal organs that cook much faster than the meat are eaten, just like the kokoretsi before the meat of modern Greek society.
At least once, the sacred part was simply thrown out of the fire before eating (Il. 9. 220).
The wine is mixed and delivered generously, apparently usually from left to right (Il. 1. 597)
For drinking and drinking.
The hand of etiquette
Washing is also standard, not only before slaughter, but also before sitting down for the feast, when a Gordon Kettle ([
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And a silver basin ([
Text cannot be copied in ASCII. ])
It is a device that is often washed.
Individual hero participants often take a bath before attending the feast (or arebathed), (15)
Apply yourself with olive oil (
Interestingly, it has never been calculated in a cooking environment)
Put on fresh clothes.
A series of sophisticated appliances and equipment are often used.
In addition to the spits for cooking, we have also heard a support for thespits (Il. 9. 214)
Two mysterious objects called [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ](Il. 1. 463 = Od. 3. 460)
Usually translated into five
It may be more reasonable to say that fork. (16)
The scones sit in different types of chairs where the environment allows ([
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]e. g. , Od. 1. 145 = 3. 389 =24. 385, 10. 233, 15. 134, 17. 86 = 17. 179 = 20. 249)
, Usually covered with cloth, small, portable polishing (stone? )
Or a silver table.
In the outdoors, or in the cottage of Eumaios, wool can be used instead. Sometimes--
But especially if the scones are sacred or semi-sacred, holy guests, or excessive suitors ---
They put their feet on the footrest. Il. 14. 241, 18. 390; Od. 1. 131, 4. 136, 10. 315, 367, 17. 409-
410, 462,504, 19. 57).
Cooked meat can be eaten on board, and bread can be eaten in a basket.
The sacrifice ceremony was also held with baskets.
Quette\'s wine is usually mixed together from an epic [
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It is often considered untranslatable [
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Or less from [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]; (17)
Only once. -
Yumeios and auduthews in the front cabin-drink from a[
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ](Od. 14. 112).
As far as we know, the KUTE people are usually silver, and the cups that drink are always gold.
Importance of wine
As a very important social activity, drinking is emphasized by the custom of giving Quette and drinking cups as guests --friend gifts (Il. 6. 220, 23. 741-748, 24. 233-234; Od. 4. 591,615-619, 8. 430, 9. 203, 15. 85, 115-119, 24. 275).
These ships usually have a long history of personal ownership and are often considered to be the most precious property of the current ship owner.
The last piece of equipment related to the preparation of mysterious wine --
Based on the potion is a bronze shredder used to grind goat cheese (Il. 11. 639-640).
The obsession with preaching that people may call a symbolic feast should remind us that this activity has a high degree of significance for Hominick (
No doubt, also pre-After-Homeric)audiences.
The simplest, perhaps the most superficial, has its obvious dramatic significance.
A banquet for telling (or singing)
About the story, is it to understand the background history necessary for the plot of the story, or to digress about anecdotes related to characters outside the stage.
They are also the prelude to an important speech announcing intent or elaborating philosophy.
In addition, the feast heralds the beginning of exciting action or development, as well as the end of successful or tragic events.
They are usually more or less formulaic punctuation marks that allow the poet, among other things, to collect his ideas and remember where he wants to go next.
Perhaps the greater significance is the reflection aspect of the family feast, especially in terms of the close connection between the feast and the story singing (cf. Od. 4. 15-18, 9. 5-10,13. 26-28, 17. 358, 22. 351-352;
For associations between feastand lyres, or in general, singing and dancing, see Od as well. 1. 144-155,8. 99, 248, 17. 269-271, 21. 428-430; Il. 1. 473, 601-604, 24. 62-63).
At this point, the Homonic epic can be said to reflect the context of their own performances, given the possibility that they may be elaborated and performed in some hyper-regional shelters such as the Festival of delos ,(18)
In a big background
The religious feast of scale is the most guaranteed.
In fact, at the risk of looking rash, it\'s hard to imagine how homic\'s audience could pass a performance of a part of Iliad or odyssey, because we know they don\'t have relatively free wine to support them (cf. , e. g. , Od. 14. 193-198, 15. 390-400).
On occasions that can be described as epic, audiences often watch scenes where people sing stories, stories of heroes, and the important speech of moral or philosophical exposition is likely to be a mirror in which they can see their own shadow directly.
They let the audience integrate into the epic world through the mirror. (19)
At a deeper level, Homeric feasting can be said to be a package of assessments that may create and confirm collective ideologies at the same time: values of friendship and communion, equal sharing and personal respect, obligations of reciprocity and hospitality ,(20)
Together with the duties of the feast community for one of the members ---
And at least have the potential for universal inclusion (
If it\'s not always the status quo). (21)
To a large extent, these are the common values of pre-industrial society (
And keep leastideas in almost all societies)
But these values are particularly relevant to the idealization of ancient Greece.
The emphasis of historical Greeks on these values, which are at the heart of their own ideas about themselves, is undoubtedly due to the crucial role played by the original epic from ancient times --
Ward is a well-recognized description of their earliest \"history\" and a well-recognized basis for their education system.
In this regard, all aspects of the Homeric terminology on toast are particularly interesting.
The most common term we usually translate into \"Feast\" is [
Text that cannot be reproduced in ascii. ]
, Literally means \"share\", \"part\", or \"divide \"(
From the root verb 【
Text that cannot be reproduced in ascii. ]
\"Points\" or \"points \"(22)[cf. Od. 5. 61, 9. 551])
In fact, it is often easier to translate.
There are many paragraphs in Iliad and Odyssey that are the basis of the concept of the word [1]
Text that cannot be reproduced in ascii. ]
Very clear. The noun-
Combination [
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It has happened several times in both Iliad and Odyssey, in which case translation [is impossible]
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Whether it\'s \"sharing\" or \"Feast\", because both are neatly wrapped inside.
In Iliad 4, for example, Zeus declared support for Priam and trojansand against herah\'s hostility on the grounds that they meticulously sacrificed inghim: same
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Data from Iliad 9
225 when Aias assured Achilles that he did not lack an equal share of the feast, whether in the residence of agamennon or in his own hut on the 15 th of Iliad.
95, in a line that is often repeated elsewhere, we find a change in the phrase [
Text that cannot be copied in ASCII. ](
(Share a feast)(e. g. , Il. 9. 70; Od. 3. 66 =20. 280, 7. 50, 11. 185-186);
In fact, the normal verb of \"giving (or apportion)
\"Feast\" and \"Feast\" are the active and middle voices [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ].
This word is very interesting.
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]
The meaning of \"Feast\" is rarely used in the prose behind (
In addition to specific Homonic references or allusions)
Although it does happen within the group. (24)
Therefore, it is a special \"poetic\" word that is considered to be \"ancient\", especially with the homarik epic and (one assumes)
Special homic and possible quasi-
Religious connotation.
Whether it\'s an earlier word
It\'s hard to tell the history of homosexuality.
As far as I can tell, it will not appear in Linear B text where festivals or festivals are implied from the context of a given particular proprietary name.
However, e-pi-de-da-to ([
Text cannot be copied in ASCII. ], (25)
\"Issued \"? )
OnPylos tablet (PY)
Vn 20, apparently in the context of the distribution of wines to each of the nine centers in Heather province ,(26)
The correct semantic association is proposed.
In general, the text focuses on the beautifully measured distribution and feast of grandeur (often together)
This makes it very likely that the concepts of \"part\" or \"sharing\" and \"Feast\" are closely linked in at least the later Bronze Age, and, in fact, built on the many reasons behind the splendid record --keeping. (27)
In particular, the evidence from the tablet proves that it is involved in the direct distribution of wine to the community and individuals (28)
May cause people to guess whether the word \"[\"]
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]
Maybe initially can get the secondary meaning of \"feast\" in the context of all festive winedrinking.
If so, we may come to the conclusion that since the use of the word [this development has been much earlier than the period of the medieval palaces]
Text that cannot be reproduced in ascii. ]and [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ](da-so-mo: PY Wa 730)
In Linear B text, \"distribution or assignment\" and \"partial or shared\" are represented, respectively \",(29)suggests that [
Text that cannot be copied in ASCII. ]and [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]
May have gained a narrower, more professional meaning than what seems to be retained in the epic. (30)
In the dominant concepts of \"sharing\" and \"equality\" implied by the word [
Text that cannot be reproduced in ascii. ]
However, there is also room for the concept of personal honor ---
Some people in the feast circle may be (
At least once)
A little more equal than others.
Just as God always gets the part of their choice (
Typical is the burn of the thigh bone of the animal, and the first taste of the wine
, Human participants can also get a \"part of honor\" because when agamennon gives Aias a choice from the back of a roast cow (Il. 7. 321-322)
Alternatively, when menelos set the same cut that was put on hold as his own privilege before Telemachos and Peisistratos (Od. 4. 65-66).
Consider a particular level or position (
Including VIP status given by friendship or hospitality obligations)
Can be selected by distributing the most delicious meat or by wine for the first timecup (cf. Od. 3. 51-53)
Therefore, it is also included in the ideology and etiquette of the banquet.
The other two words rarely used in Homer are [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ](and its verb[
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ])(Il. 10. 217, 14. 241, 18. 491, 23. 201; Od. 1. 226, 2. 57, 11. 415, 17. 410; cf. Il. 17. 577 [[
Text that cannot be copied in ASCII. ]])and [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ](Od. 1. 226, 11. 415).
The exact meaning and derivative of the former are not clear, and its epic derivative seems to only mean ordinary feasts or corporate revelry.
However, in both cases, the word itself is in contrast [
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Wedding Banquet (Od. 1.
226, however, is clearly more of a wedding; 11. 415), (31)
On the one hand, it is different from the wedding (Il. 18. 491)
From one [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ](Il. 10. 217)
And one is obviously from drinking (Od. 2. 57).
This, along with itsrarity, indicates a noun that initially had some rather specific meaning that it had lost the meaning when it was incorporated into the epic. (32)
It was observed to be rather clumsy with the different parts of the wedding banquet scan (Il. 18. 491; Od. 1. 226)
It may suggest that it is already an old word, and that its phonetic rhyme has changed over time.
As for ranow, it only appears in the two lines of epic poems already referenced in Odyssey.
Similar findings were found in Pindar (Ol. 1. 38; Pyth. 5. 77, 12. 14)
There, it seems to mean no more than a general feast or festival.
To represent a club or a common society (Dem. Epistulae 5. 6.
Month, report on the final accounts of InAristogitonem. 22. 1)
Leading to the usual translation of the Odyssey asa meal, everyone contributed one of their own, so as a suitable technical term for the public Type feast discussed above, and, although it has never been explicitly applied to any obviously public-type feast in the epic ,(33)
It may have made such a sense in the first place. (34)
The archaeological and historical composition of the homic feast is beyond doubt that the homic epic is not only a product of their own time, but it is precisely because they have no genetic effect (
May also be the purpose)
In creating a shared Pan-Greek \"past\", they reflect the complex accumulation of beliefs, concepts and practices that have been superimposed in popular consciousness for a long time and spread through different regional traditions.
In fact, this is of course a necessary prerequisite for achieving results in this regard, because intuitively by narrative bardic song the cumulative weight of the \"known\" that is constantly generated and disseminated, in different places, by reinterpreting for generations, it is much more credible than any particular creation, created out of thin air, no matter how appropriate or skilled.
The elements of time stratification, in fact, the elements of language and cultural transfer are obvious in all aspects of epic material culture and language, and in some cases can be traced back at least to the Late Bronze Age, or earlier, covering areas including the Near East and Egypt and much of the Aegean Sea.
There is no reason to think that this layering and transfer may also not apply to the practices and attitudes of the feast.
The integration of epic integrity and deep regional and historical accumulation means that, in terms of the definition of modern anthropologist, the feast behavior of homeric is likely to appear ambiguous and hinder classification.
This ambiguity is characteristic of many social practices and institutions encountered in the epic.
In fact, this can be said to be the deliberate ambiguity of the homic epic, just like the scripture in the Bible, which makes it clear to everyone that from ancient times it emphasizes the core of the collective Greek identity
Although in the archaeological record, we may be lucky enough to be able to identify the detailed behavior that is in trouble.
In the definition and coherent categories of structure, motivation and practical interests, gay texts are bound to be more elusive and contradictory in this regard.
In fact, whether in the Aegean Sea or anywhere else, there may be no limit to the time when one can push the feast. How far back (and from where)
We can trace back the ideology and practice of any particular gay feast, which depends to a large extent on archaeology, and especially on the fact that it can transform artifacts, more rare representative art, and
We can first look at the culinary practices and equipment associated with the feast in the epic. The spits ([
Text that cannot be copied in ASCII. ])
Used to burn meat (
Whenever we are told the details of the cooking process)(35)
It is usually related to iron thorns in the 10 th century Aegean Sea, occasionally accompanied by metal tucking brackets. (36)
These seem to be a way to get to the Aegean Sea from Cyprus, where the bronze spit follows, and the iron spit has appeared on the 11 th.
In the context of the century, although in the centuries that ended the second millennium, the idea of cooking meat in bronze with a new, stylish way of cooking may initially not completely exclude import examples of these artifacts themselves from the central or western Mediterranean. (37)
It is believed that these spits are only metal translations of woodenspits, which have a long history in the Aegean Sea; (38)
While this argument may gain some support from the possibility of finding bronze tucks in unpublished objects on the 15 th
Century vapheiothros ,(39)
This leaves a puzzle as to why they should not often be translated into bronze earlier and deposited more with other bronze cooking equipment (
Incremental tombs, for example)
Or recorded in a linear Binventories in any identifiable form.
In fact, just in the 11 th century and later Cyprus and the Aegean Sea, the regular appearance of metal spits seems to indicate a new social or ideological emphasis on spit.
Barbecue at this time, while the observation of spits often occurs in male-related Graves (warrior)
Burial implies that men are linked together through a barbecue and may be mainly outdoors, especially in connection with hunting. (40)
We were not informed of the production materials of Homeric spits, nor were we told exactly how they were used, which left room for people, it makes it possible for them to think that the repeated passages referring to spits come from the background of the wooden spits, perhaps in other ways, is the norm.
However, as far as we can understand, the ideology associated with the iron agent of the early Iron Age seems to be fully in line with their standard role in the preparation of the epic feast, and also in line with their use
Another device that also seems to belong to the early Iron Age is the strange that shekmede used to grind goat\' scheese into her preparation for Nestor and Machaon inIliad 11
Copper (
Occasional iron)
First appeared in the tenth month. ninth-
In the background of the century, David Ridgeway has also discussed it recently. (41)
The Association of three bronzes in leffkandi and the ninth
There are weapons and equipment in the tomb of the century, and one of them has iron,42)
Bring these into the same general context and suggest that they are also in some way associated with the feast activities of contemporary fighters ---
Although they are only used to grind cheese (Like the Iliad.
Or it\'s controversial for a more exotic purpose.
Given that elite activities are most easily included in the elite --
Sponsored art, both visual and linguistic, when it is the latest and most novel (
So most elites)
A date around the 10 th
In the ninth century, spits and grater were first merged into pre-
The Hero song of homic, during this period, it may emphasize the definition [
Text that cannot be copied in ASCII. ](
(Glorious Deeds)
Contemporary ornear-
Contemporary individuals or small groups ,(43)
It seems possible in principle.
Homic cooking practice mainly reflects the practice of the warrior elite in the early Iron Age, and this conclusion is supported in the history of the Bronze Age.
Tripod insert deeper (ti-ri-
Hieroglyphics * 201)
There is a good representation in Linear B text (see below,Fig. 1:201)
, Two of which happen on a tablet (PY Ta 709)
Portable stoves and other magnificent cooking equipment.
There is no doubt that they also appear in the hunting scene decorated with walls above Pylos megaron 46, which is a feast ,(44)
Maybe in a related scene in Kea. (45)
In addition to not having any objects that can be identified as spits, they also indicate ritual food (
Including meat for human consumption)
It was prepared in the myceni Palace mainly by boiling or stewing. (46)
There is no hint of this practice found in the epic, in the context of the hero, the tripod pot is only used to heat the washing water (Il. 18. 344, 22. 443, 23. 40; Od. 8. 434, 10. 359).
However, the results of the recent analysis of organic residues of clay versions of these tripod containers (
As long as they may be reliable)
It seems to show that in the Aegean Sea, meat is usually cooked in this way, at least from the Middle and Late Bronze Ages, and is usually cooked in the context of ritual. (47)[
Figure 1 slightly]
This cooking method is much more economical than grilling or roasting, because the meat can be cut into small pieces and expanded with liquid and other ingredients, and because boiling or stewing will make the hardest part edible.
Therefore, it is more appropriate for large enterprises in nature.
It is more scale than the homic barbecue practice. (48)
In addition, this proposal was supported by traces of meatin tripod vessels from Armenoi, Thebes and postpalatial Tiryns, starting from the 13 th century, meat cooked in relatively crude pots may have become a diet item for an increasing population (49)
Give us a plausible background and let\'s see an introduction to the exclusive warrior BBQ
At the beginning of the new millennium, feast with its unique equipment as a new, thoughtful form of elite division.
In view of this problem, mysterious [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]
In only two epic cooking scenes, it does not have explicit features in repeated lines and is likely to be considered as many of the old cooking or stew that was replaced by the early Iron Age BBQ(50)
For any culinary purposes, avoiding the mention of olive oil in the epic may or may not be relevant to the above observations.
No oil for spit
Bake on open fire, especially because there is a lot of fat on animals.
Neither stews nor cooks may be necessary, but doing so greatly improves the taste of the meat;
It is said that traces of olive oil were found in almost all Bronze Age clay tripod vessels and other cookware with organic meat residues ,(51)
And the number of other pots.
This shows--
Like in the case of meat. -
Olive oil may be a fairly common element in the bronze diet and other diets.
Interestingly, however, there is no clear evidence in the Linear B text about cooking oil ,(52)
Although it is mainly related to manufacturing products and (
Usually when ready. perfumed form)
Especially in the epic oil (
Sometimes in gulden [Od. 6. 79]
Sometimes it\'s vintage quality [Il. 18. 351])
Only for oil coating.
Consistent and positive emphasis on olive oil in the epic (
It\'s hard to escape a gay audience)
Indicates that it is not accidental that it is not mentioned in the cooking environment;
While it almost certainly reflects the later continuation of the various uses recorded in Linear B, it may also indicate that olive oil is usually (
Perfume in particular)
In the early days of iron was a relatively rare and expensive commodity.
The Feast of the myceni palatial period can be carried out on a large scale ---
Probably a lot bigger than anything ordinary homeric BBQ can cope with reality-
It seems possible from all signs.
Animal group evidence from mpylos, which has been discussed very subtly elsewhere ,(53)
Provides a reason to think that this is a feast in honor of Poseidon, and there are many similarities to what is described in Odyssey 3. 4-
342, shortly before the palace was destroyed.
10 cows involved (54)
Far from the 81 Bulls contributed by nine Pylian towns in the Odyssey (3. 7-8)
But maybe enough to feed more than a thousand people at a time--
Maybe the whole (male? )
The population of the town of peños, or a large number of delegates from the main Peilian center.
High-picture vision
On the small table inside megaron, they rank as diners for meals, and their social subordinates gather more people in the Southwest Court, and there are more subordinates outside the Palace ,(55)
One of them, we clearly see the elements in the Odyssey. (56)
Over the past decade or so, the Texas evidence of the myceny feast has been written a lot ,(57)
Obviously, the banquet was very large during the recording of the myceni Palace.
Due to the elusive \"snapshot\" nature of the text, it is not always clear how this feast is organized.
However, we would like to have evidence of a donation feast organized directly by the palace, as the animals are brought to the center from various places around (
Sometimes far awayflung)
Community and religious banquets (
May also be secular)
Other places in the Palace itself centered on wine, barley, honey, figs or oil (
The last one may be mainly used to apply cosmetics to a god). (58)
Whether or not the latter is organized independently of the palace, our knowledge of them shows a close and magnificent interest, which in turn shows, palaceshand makes a difference in most of the public or official banquets they care about.
Although we pay attention to subscribing to the feast, because most (if not all) ingredients are ultimately forced out of the surrounding crowd in one way or another, this is the close interaction between the palace, the religious center, and other communities, and in terms of the improvement of the feast material, it seems to blur any obvious difference between the custody and the public banquet visible in the epic;
In addition, it shows that, wherever it is held, who really bears the primary responsibility for the cost, every official feast is a combination of community effort and palatial charity. (59)
Considering the unstable location of the 13th-century and 14th-century palaces (
They proved this when they suddenly disappeared around 1200 B. c. )
This seems to be a smart strategy to allow as many people as possible to participate in the dual obligations of the students and customers, in a way that vaguely blends together.
It sometimes involves a large number of animals and a large number of other substances (60)
Showing that some banquets are held on a trulymassive scale increases the likelihood that almost everyone, regardless of social status, will have the opportunity to share at some point at the official banquet. (61)
Naturally, we will not hear this informal feast directly. byHalstead\'s observation strongly implies that there is also some kind of palatial kindness, at least tacit, outside the palace circle, that is, the members of the magnificent flock often flow abnormally, and it is recommended that the herdsmen remove the fat water for their own feast requirements. (62)
One can also catch a glimpse of this practice in the composite world of epic, even if it is most clearly through denial.
When swineherdEumaios made up his mind to slaughter the best pig of auduthews, he disguised himself as an unknown stranger (Od. 14. 414-417)
, Hevents his feelings are expressed in words, not only angry at the outrageous destruction that the suitor has done to his master\'s herd, but also the deep personal discontent of a man who is used to his right.
He described it in 15 years. 373)
Removed arbitrarily and unreasonably (cf. also Od. 4. 87-88).
However, in general, as in cooking practice, the magnificent feast equipment that Linear B-slices bring to us hardly gives any pictures to humans.
In particular, unfortunately, the shorthand nature of the text generally does not allow us to associate hieroglyphics with the text, but despite this limitation, the proliferation of professional forms and terms may indicate the degree of specialization of the functions adopted by the mainland palaces from Crete ,(63)
Completely different from what is seen in epic.
Jugs has at least four names and at least four independent ideograms, of which (in this case)
There are three games between them. Fig. 1:204-206). (64)
Similarly, there are several hieroglyphics in the drinking containers that we should probably recognize ---
Various forms of cups, wine glasses, kylikes and chalk in gold or bronze, all of which have metals and ceramics in archaeological records (Fig.
1:208, 215, 216, 218,221). (65)
However, there are only two names in each case (po-ro-ko-
Maybe ku. pe-
Ra, both on the myceni tablet Ue 611, unfortunately neither has hieroglyphics)
Can be identified as corresponding to the usual homic word, which is a kettle used to pour water for cleaning ([
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]: Od. 1. 136, 7. 172, 15. 135, 17. 91; Il. 24. 301)
Maybe it\'s one of two less common words for a drinking cup ([
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]: Il. 1. 596, 3. 248, 4. 345, 9. 670,24. 305; Od. 1. 142, 2. 396, 4. 58, 10. 357, 20. 253). (66)
Particularly interesting issues appear in ideograms * 202 and * 214 from the perspective of homic (Fig.
1: 202, 202 DI, 214 DI)
, Accompanied by the noun di-
There is no doubt that pa and homic [are the same word]
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ](PY Ta 641;
Kn k 740, K 829, K 875). (67)
On K 740, 30 di-
The Pa is clearly listed in bronze and on Ta 641 they are listed together with the tripod cauldron and they are almost certainly also metal.
The regular ideogram * 202 is best described as looking like a jar and it has three versions: one with four handles on the edge and one with three handles (Fig. 1:202+DI)
One without a handle (Fig. 1:202).
These conceptual grammars respond to a written description of qe-to-ro-we (\"Foul \"), ti-ro-jo-we (
(With three ears), and a-no-we(\"with no ears\"), respectively.
As is often said, the ship does not seem to be suitable for drinking, especially the one that extends up to four ear-shaped handles from the edge. Yet inIliad 11. 632-
635, Nestle\'s famous goldstudded [
Text that cannot be copied in ASCII. ]
Described as having four \"ears \"([
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ])
Except for its Golden Dove (
There are two around each \"ear)
There are two stands. (68)
In fact, on Ta 641 there are various examples of six di\'s
Pa appears with other vessels that may be related to the Feast ,(69)
In K 875, six examples without hands were assigned to six individuals who might be basileus (
So, in a sense, official)
Status, indicating di-
The Pa has a ritual function.
Small number (six)
Ta 641 listed--
Part of a series of tablets that seem to provide the required equipment for 22 Ovens (70)--
This makes it more impossible for them to be used as separate drinking water vessels and suggests more public functions. (71)
Pictograms themselves cannot be easily identified in any ceramic form known in archaeological records.
Vandenabeele and Olivier determine that it is double in a large bronzeorthree-
Handling \"krater \"-
Ships like the early days of myceny;
However, this is much wider than the blood vessels represented by most versions of mind maps ,(72)
Although it is no different from ideogram * 214 on kn k 740 (Fig. 1:214+DI)
, This seems to be associated with the word pa-ko-
On PY Ta 709 (Fig. 1:214). (73)
As long as this recognition is convincing ,(74)
Given the emphasis on the size and weight of [Nestlé\'s unique description], it may be considered interesting
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]in Iliad 11. 638.
In fact, it is clear from Ta 641 that di-
The Pa has different sizes as the three examples listed above are described as me-zo (\"larger\")
The other three are like me. wi-jo (\"smaller\").
Also interested in this, di-
The pa on the tablet seems to be related not only to two different drugs --
It looks like ideograms, but it\'s also always necessary to qualify with specific descriptions that are either related to the size, or related to the number of handles, or both.
In this regard, the analogy can be made with homic.
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]
It is often associated with the word [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]--
Although the nature of the description is completely different.
Even in the 13 th century, the term itself-
Different from other modern forms of vessel terminology-
Obviously a relatively general, although it may be associated with a particular function, it has a lower form specificity compared to other nouns
Combination of hieroglyphics.
This, in turn, suggests that it may have been an old, good
Established terms.
In fact, it was originally the possibility of a Luwian loan term (75)
Suggest it is older.
By the 8 th century, as its variant, the form of Homeric, shows, the word is ingrained in the artificial language of epic, in which it appears to represent an ordinary drinking --cum-
Libation ship, the most important thing is libation. (76)
By this time, however, any clear feeling of a particular meaning seems to become more obvious (or function)
The word and its standard qualifier [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]
Lost already irreparable
All in all, it seems like an epic [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]
It is the result of a very long and diverse historical accumulation and confusion of the term and its application, which had already appeared before the late Bronze Age.
It may well have originated in a ritual container, perhaps for the purpose of offering wine or other forms of sacrifice ---
Function of Di-
Pa may still be associated in the 13 th century.
In fact, the two unique nestorsstemmed [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ], which (
Except for four \"ears \")
It doesn\'t sound like a linear B di-
Pa, retains traces of an earlier ritual form that has disappeared or changed beyond recognition during the period of the palace. (77)
In general, when we return in time beyond the linear text range, the possibility of actively identifying practical eor device elements directly related to the home feast becomes smaller and smaller, which is understandable.
There is no doubt, however, that the feast took place in the early days, and it is almost certain that it was an important social institution, as in the magnificent and later periods.
Emphasizing the drinking of vessels in the graves of the early myceni period, while emphasizing the display of weapons, hunting, glittering personal decorative items, this feast is an important bonding mechanism for the kind of active elite warrior band we may see in the myceni axis tomb-
One may venture to say that its importance in this regard is directly commensurate with its exclusivity.
At the same time, at the funeral, the spotlight is aimed at the individual, a practice that often covers the body with luxurious gold decorations, indicating that the respect and honor of the individual in the group is also an important concern.
In large and different (often unique)
Precious metal drinking cups found in prehistoric tombs and other tombs (78)--
Obviously personal wealth with you. -
It also leads to suspicion that, like in epic, these ships are often guests
Gifts, many of them may have their previous outstanding ownership.
Given that there are no water cups in the Pylos Ta series, personal possession and use of precious drinking utensils still seem to be part of the splendid elite society for about three centuries.
The gold kylikes and chalices granted to various gods by thePylos palace listed on Tn 316 may therefore represent a body of religious background for the practice of giving objects such as guestsgifts. (79)
The unique and mutually supportive spirit of the first myceni period warrior band (
There may be feast practices)
Above all, the symbolic meaning of this circle suggests this, not only in the two graves of myceny, but also in the tomb of tumuli, perhaps the earliest of Toos
Some of this symbolism survives in the form of a fixed circular fireplace to a magnificent period, a feature of the mainland Palace megara, assuming that those who enjoy food at these firesides of megara are mainly electronicqe-ta, in whom (
Complete their visit)
One may see the residual genetic elements of the early warrior band. (80)
In the context of food, you can catch a glimpse of a circle similar to symbolism.
It can be seen that around the altar, the arrangement of slaughtering animals is orderly (Il. 1. 447-448), (81)
Alternatively, future bakers can arrange bakers around an animal (Il. 2. 410). (82)
This can also be seen in the arrangement of the banquet, which means putting Demodokoson in the chair in the middle of the banquet sitting in order ([
Text cannot be copied in ASCII. ])
At the Palace of aginos (Od. 8. 65-66 =473; cf. 9. 8)
Through the mandatory words of Antino OS against auduthews and the sharpshooter, the latter bypassed the scones in order (Od. 17. 447,450)
By the way, the suitor of the banquet took turns to string the bow, and arranged it from left to right in the same direction of wine circulation (Od. 21. 141-142; cf. Il. 1. 597).
This symbolic meaning can also be seen in the epic in the context of other typical heroes, like when theAchaean hero stands around \"god-like\" menelos when he needs itIl. 4. 211-212)
The Hunter encircles the Lion (Od. 4. 792)
Or the elders on the Achilles shield sit in the sacred circle on the head of the polished stone (Il. 18. 504).
One or two aspects of HOMERIC drinking wine and attitude towards wine
Compared to the drinking history of the Aegean Sea, drinking is particularly interesting in the homarick epic.
Here, epic is particularly valuable in the use environment, wine description, and social and ideological attitudes towards wine appear more clearly from them than archaeological records or even Linear B texts.
As with Iliad and other aspects of the Odyssey, epic provides a freeze
Regarding the framework of the accumulated attitudes and practices of wine, these attitudes and practices have accumulated over a long period of time, forming part of a generalized Greek consciousness of about 700 B. c.
First of all, there are two words in the epic that are \"wine\": the usual word ,[
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]
And one more ,[
Text cannot be copied in ASCII. ]
This only appears in two places in theIliad (7. 471, 9. 469; cf. also [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ][\"soused\"]in Il. 17. 390)
In 15 examples of Odyssey
Almost half of the references in the Odyssey take place on a repeat line: It sounds very much like the well-known expression of abundance, similar to the expression in the Bible \"a land full of milk and honey \". \"(84)
From the background [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]
Appeared in the epic, it is clear that there is no difference between it and [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]
But the word itself is the same as the English \"mead\", and it is almost certain that in the early Greek, the meaning of the word is quite different and may refer to a kind made of fermented honey. (85)
It is particularly interesting in this regard that the word also appears in the phrase me-tu-wo ne-
Obviously, as the name of a festival (
New wine]or mead]\")(Fr 1202)(86)--
To be precise, after names have lost their original meaning and specific meaning, the kind of background in which they may exist for a long time (
As \"Yuletide\" is still used to refer to Christmas). While [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]
The epic is sweet ([
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]or [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]:Od. 14. 194), [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]
Most often sparkling or sparkling ([
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]: Il. 1. 146 and passim; Od. 2. 57 = 17. 536 and passim)
Although it can also be red ([
Text that cannot be copied in ASCII. ]: Od. 5. 165, 9. 163, 208, 12. 19, 327, 13. 69,16. 444)or black ([
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]: Od. 5. 265, 9. 196,346), like life-
In some cases, blood donation is given in cases where it may be considered symbolic. [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]
Also described as sweet-
Either Sweet directly (Od. 3. 51,10. 519 = 11. 27, 20. 69; cf. also Il. 2. 340; Od. 3. 391, 15. 507)
In the metaphorical sense, it may mean sweet, or it is literally sweet ---
Described by a compound of the word honey ([
Text that cannot be reproduced in ascii. ])as \"honey-sweet\" ([
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]:Il. 4. 346, 6. 258, 264, 8. 506, 546, 10. 579, 12. 320, 18. 545, 24. 284; Od. 3. 46, 7. 182 = 13. 53, 9. 208, 10. 356, 14. 78 = 16. 52, 15. 148, 18. 151, 426,21. 293).
With this, the sweeter the wine, the higher the quality-
In the case of notable-
The greater the power, like the Supersweet, ultra-
The spirit of Malone\'s wine for Matthews (Od. 9. 196-215).
While these compounds are also used in a metaphorical sense to describe abstract concepts such as life, sleep, and home, and are applied to other sweets such as grapes and lotus fruits, they often use honey to increase the sugar content of wine, whether it is in manufacturing or later, a program that can enhance its strength and maintain its quality.
Although there is no clear indication of this in the epic, the emergence of the adjective me --ri-ti-jo (\"honeyed\")
On the back of the sealed nodule that records the supply of Pylos wine (87)
This suggests that certain wines may have been dealt with in this way, at least in the 13 th century.
In the epic, honey is clearly mixed with wine for drinking once or twice, but in the case of indicating that the mix is unusual ---
For Heroes, of course, it is not normal practice. it isimplied)
Their wine is always mixed with water. (88)
It seems that almost anyone except a woman can drink in an epic (
In addition to that, it is from the goddess orsemi-goddesses).
The supply of the entire Achaya army in Troy is sufficient (Il. 9. 71-72);
Eumaios has a lot of wine in his humble cabin;
They even drink to refresh themselves during their work (Il. 18. 545).
At the same time, there is a strong suggestion that the kind of formal drinking party held at the Horse house, like the classic workshop, is only for men.
In this case, the wine is described [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ](\"manly\")(Od. 4. 622);
Othews disguised as a beggar, was invited by the telemarketer to sit on a table and chair and drink \"with a man (
Mayndras: Od. 20. 262);
We were told that after taking a bath in his palace, auduthews went to drink with them --drinking (Od. 8. 456).
This drinking is often accompanied by the singing of the Bard (Od. 1. 340).
The Association of wine with \"manhood\" may be further reflected in the number of male proprietary names derived from the root [
Text that cannot be reproduced in ascii. ]in the epics.
We have two oinomauses in Iliad, one Oineus and one Oinops, both of whom are the father or grandfather of the hero himself or the hero;
And there\'s a guy, an extra father.
The haters in Odyssey.
Winemay may also be associated with freedom in a similar connection (Il. 6. 528). (89)
Finally, there is a perceived parallel-If there is no ambiguity-
Photo of Alkinoos sitting on his throne drinking his wine \"like a fairy \"([
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]: Od. 6. 309).
Some people wonder if, at this point, one should think of megaron in Pylos, where the throne of wanax is surrounded by its libation channel.
Although the wine is a normal part of hospitality, from the palace to the most humble house, as well as other bread and water (
Like them, list part of the standard terms on the go)
Wine also accounts for a considerable proportion of Prince\'s gifts. giving.
The kirconian Malone and his wife gave to auduthews, as well as seven gold and silver clartel, a gift for 12 cans of wine of varying sweetness and strength;
Although King Lemnos sent a wine gift and measure to his competitors Agamemnon and menelos atTroy, and the unknown quantity sold to the Achaean teamIl. 7. 467-475).
The differences in wine quality implied by these gifts also appear in the epic, and may have been applied to the magnificent era of the Bronze Age. (90)
There is more than one kind of wine stored in pithoi in the palacestory room of auduthews (Od. 2. 340-352)
The best wine for auduthews to go home; the second-
Best of all, telemachos asked Eurykleia to draw a picture for his journey to peelos;
One can assume the existence of the third quality provided (
At least at first)
For those suitors who have been complained by Telemachos, he has finished all ofodyseus\'s wine with one of his sheep and goats (Od. 2. 56-58).
Elsewhere, we hear wines reserved for the elders (Od. 13. 8)
And \"choose \"(jaitow)
Wine enjoyed by the leaders of the lacian Sarpedon and glaukosa (Il. 12. 318-320).
Wine is also very popular.
The special wines stored in the Palace of auduthews are once again described as \"Old Years \"(Od. 2. 340);
Wine brought by Nestor for Telemachos, we are told that it is 11 years old (Od. 3. 391-392).
By holding for a long time, there is the same sense of enhancement, just like the body of toanoint Patroklos used by unguent, which has been preserved for nine years (Il. 18. 351).
Wine is clearly produced in many different places, at least on a small scale in some cases.
Laertis has his vineyard, no more than a small holding (Od. 1. 193, 11. 193)
Even the one-eyed giant has created an undeniable conflict.
Wine stirred from wild vines (Od. 9. 111,358).
At the same time, it was suggested that, especially in the \"ship catalogue\", certain places may be known for wine production or for wine quality.
Epidos, Ahn, the organization, and pedassos are all known for their vineyards.
Clearly particularly prominent in this regard is the location of the special gifts of the northern Aegean Sea region, Maron and Euneos --
Worth the wine and Thrace wine are brought to the onAchaean boat in Troy every dayIl. 9. 71-72).
This may mean that the regional reputation of wine specialization may be a relatively late feature dating back to the 10 th century, when there was evidence that
Long-distance transportation of amphoras, which may contain Northern Aegean wine, began to appear. (91)
While there may be some evidence that wine was exported in the Neolithic Crete, there is little obvious indication that in the late Bronze Age the number of wines transported by ships around the Aegean Sea was insignificant.
The Aegean world generally failed to adopt their own version of The Cananite jar (
Pioneer of classic amphora). (92)
The wine drunk by the hero is usually a clear \"mix \"(
The verb used is [
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ])
Get constant service from mixing
Bowl or Quette ([
Non-reproducible text in ASCII. ]
, From the same verb), though--
Maybe amazing. -
In some cases, we were specifically told that it was mixed with water (Od. 1. 110, 9. 209).
Nevertheless, drunkenness is not only a dangerous condition, but also a shameful condition (Od. 14. 466, 18. 240,331, 19. 122, 21. 293-294)
, It is highly recommended to dilute the wine with water is what the homic audience will understand, especially in the Polyphemos episode in Odyssey 9.
The person who drinks alcohol (
Like one-eyed giant)
Tend to be sad; (93)
In general, any suggestion that wine cannot be drunk, and its misuse in a non-mixed form, is considered absolutely non-heroic.
Roles related to drunkenness include Polyphemos, Elpenor (
Described as a rather ineffective warrior and a somewhat simple person. minded: Od. 11. 61)
The art of Centauri (
\"The first time you find your own evil in alcohol abuse\": Od. 21. 304).
There is also a strong hint that the suitor in the Odyssey is likely to be able to commit such a crime (Od. 16. 292 = 19. 11, 18. 406-407)
Although Achilles can be considered one of the most serious and important insults thrown at him in a quarrel with agamennon is calling him an alcoholic (Il. 1. 225).
This raises the question of when the practice of mixing wine and water first appeared on Greek soil at classical workshops.
This is not an easy question to answer for direct archaeological investigations.
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