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the history of uk emigration

by:KingKonree     2020-03-14
Why do people immigrate?
Historically, there are many reasons for immigration from Britain.
Getting rid of religious persecution, poverty, war and the search for a better life are recognized factors.
The early colonists were businessmen, pioneers, and people pursuing wealth.
It has also become home to rebels, prisoners and bonded workers.
1607 British colonies were established in North America.
Many senior civil servants have been sent overseas to serve, and the missionary will send Christians and clergy to set up churches, and companies and owners have access to land to organize settlements.
In the early colonial United States, land ownership was considered to live with the King, who in turn awarded the land to companies and individuals as a reward for service.
During the 19 th century, military pensioners were encouraged to settle in British colonies, and laws such as the 1834 Poverty Act provided aid to poor immigrants.
In the 20 th century, the largest immigrant group was the bride of the Second World War.
It is estimated that more than 80,000 women in Britain have become war brides, and the number of immigrants to Canada and the United States has not been recorded centrally.
In his book, immigration and expatriates, Roger Kershaw said that since 1607, Britain and Ireland have sent more than 10 million immigrants to the United States and 4 million immigrants to the United States.
5 million from Australia.
Between 1845 and 1851, more than 1.
25 million of Ireland immigrated to the United States due to the potato famine.
Mode of transportation.
19 th century and early 20 th century are called the great times of sea passenger travel.
Travelers and tourists were originally traveling as a sideline for shipping companies.
These were originally mail and cargo ships. Although the fare was cheap, the conditions were too crowded.
It was soon realized that good passenger transport facilities would bring higher fares and greater customization.
More and more custom ships are being used to transport passengers.
Usually, the rich sit on the Upper Table, which is usually called first class, while the lower passengers sit on the poorer table called steerage.
There are usually common living and public cooking arrangements for Steerage.
It takes about 4 weeks to go to North America and about 10 to 14 weeks to go to Australia.
In the 1860 s, sailing began to be replaced by steamboats.
This greatly shortens the travel time.
North America can be reached in eight days, and Australia can be reached in four to six weeks.
From the mid-17th century, Liverpool was the main port of immigration to North America.
The port attracts visitors from all over the UK.
In the 19 th century, with the development of North Sea ships and the increasing number of railways, passengers from mainland Europe will travel to Liverpool to board ships bound for the United States.
For example, immigrants from northern Europe, such as Scandinavian, Russian and Polish, arrived in Hull through the North Sea and traveled by train to Liverpool.
Roger Kershaw, in his book, immigration and expatriates, said that 1851 of Liverpool, the main port of immigration in Europe, shipped about 160,000 passengers to the United States that year alone, between 1830 and 1930, it was estimated that more than 9 million migrants left Liverpool to find a new life.
By the end of the 19 th century, other ports had begun to challenge Liverpool\'s popularity, including Southampton and German ports such as Bremen and Hamburg.
Other ports used include Glasgow, Hull, London, Bristol, Plymouth and Newcastle.
The report of the travel conditions Immigration Committee on the steerage conditions was submitted to Congress on December 13, 1909, which raised the general human demand for space, air, food, sleep, and now the extent to which privacy is mandatory by law.
In addition to that, the person carrying is regarded as so many goods, and transportation is their sole responsibility.
The report found that for up to 300 people, the bedroom is a large compartment, usually divided into women without escort, men and families traveling alone.
The bed consists of two layers of mattress, pillow and blanket.
On some lines, every trip is updated.
There is no space for carrying luggage or clothes.
Cleaning is the only way to clean, the report said.
Sometimes the process is repeated several times a day.
This is especially true when garbage is food residue that flight attendants sell to passengers for their own benefit.
No sick jars were provided, not even large waste containers.
Seasickness vomit is usually allowed to stay for a long time before it is removed.
When the floor is iron, the floor is constantly damp, and when the floor is wood, the floor smells bad because they are not cleaned.
The open-air deck space available to passengers at Steerage is limited and usually there is no separate dining room, so passengers eat, sleep and live in their sleeping areas.
The report went on to say that, in addition to the problem, there was a lack of adequate ventilation, which was harmful to health and morality.
Although the restrooms and restrooms should be separate according to the law, men and women should be separated.
In addition to that, the report found that the construction of the cheapest materials and washbasins meant that they were too small to keep clean.
The findings show that the only rule to prevent all dirt from this trip is cold salt water, and sometimes a warm water faucet leads to the entire bathroom.
In some cases, this warm water faucet is also the only item for washing dishes.
Soap and towels were not provided.
Wash room and water floor-
The closets are damp and usually dirty until the last day of the voyage, when they are cleaned up and ready to be checked at the port of entry.
The report also found that insufficient catering was provided. There are two systems for catering.
In one case, the passenger each carries the coarse tableware he used throughout the journey, passing a document in front of the three or four stewards of the service, and each receives his rations.
He then finds a place where he can eat, then washes the dishes and finds a hidden place for them, where they may be safe until the next meal.
Naturally, people will rush to make sure where they line up and then fight for the warmth of being single --
Faucet, it has to meet the needs of hundreds of people.
Between the two, the tables and seats were forgotten, or they were deliberately abandoned for the fresh air of the open deck.
Coffee is always bad. tea is not the food of most immigrants.
Vegetables, fruits and pickles are a negligible part of the diet and are often of poor quality.
The preparation of food, the way food is provided, and the proportion of several food elements needed to ignore the human body make the food unsatisfactory and therefore insufficient.
Those who are allowed by Capital buy goods in the canteen, alleviating this defect and monotony.
Supply milk for children.
After what has already been said, there is little need to consider separately keeping order and cleanliness in the steerage dormitory and steerage passengers.
What are the actual uses of the rules and rations of the master or master, when the existing residence cannot be implemented or there is no obvious result?
\"Typical diseases on board.
In addition to the expected seasickness that plagues many passengers, the condition on board, lack of privacy, lack of light and fresh air also means that the disease is easily transmitted.
Typhoid, cholera and malaria are common, and many passengers travel directly from the ship to the hospital after arriving in New York. Who Emigrated?
The reason for immigration clearly illustrates the type of people who choose to immigrate, mainly those who want to start a new life.
However, there are some people in the community who do not have a say when moving.
Between 1618 and 1967 there are several UK children\'s immigration programs.
In his book, immigration and diaspora, Roger Kershaw said that it is estimated that about 150,000 children were sent to British colonies and dominion.
These children are often taken care of by voluntary organizations that offer them the idea of increasing population, labor and productivity, with little regard to how children feel.
The 1850 amendment to the law on the poor allowed the Guardian Council to send children under the age of 16 overseas.
One of the earliest examples was in 1617, when the Virginia Company in the United States requested the delivery of children to their colonies.
The Christmas Hospital School in London sent gifts to 100 poor and orphans.
Transporting prisoners from the UK is a system that sends prisoners to British colonies where they work for a period of time.
In theory, they will be conducive to learning skills, professional ethics and the development of colonies.
It is estimated that 50,000 men, women and children were transported to the United States and West India, between 1614 and 1775.
The sentence is usually about 10 years old and can be used as an alternative to the death penalty.
British law stipulates that all those traveling abroad over the age of 18 must pledge allegiance, which has an impact on the immigration of 1610 people.
From 1637, there was no permission from the plantation commissioner to go to the American colony without passengers.
The merchant ship Act of 1894 requires passengers on British merchant ships to be listed.
The land and immigration commission was established in 1833 to promote immigration by providing free access and land grants.
1834 the amendment to the law on the poor provides assistance to poor immigrants for their parish adoption.
Amendment to the law on the poor 1850 allows the Guardian Committee to send children under the age of 16 overseas for the first time.
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