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assessment of athletic health care facility surfaces for mrsa in the secondary school setting.

by:KingKonree     2020-02-26
Slightly] Illustrations
S. aureus (MRSA)
Becoming more and more common in the health care environment, S. aureus has recently become a major problem and challenge for relevant health care providers (
Liang and Barkley, 2006).
Once a major concern for infection control practitioners, S. aureus has become a major problem for sports coaches, sanitarians and public health officials.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
The proportion of antimicrobial infections has been increasing.
1974 of the patients accounted for 2% of the total staph infection;
22% per cent in 1995;
It rose to 63% by 2004.
The Cdc estimates that 94,360 people have had invasive golden yellow grape infections within 25 years, and about 18,650 have died.
Golden yellow grape infection is still mainly related to exposure in health care, and about 85% of Invasive golden yellow grape infection is related to health care (
Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2007).
However, more and more cases occur outside the hospital.
According to data from a 2003 study, 12% of clinical golden yellow grape infections were community-related (known as CA-MRSA).
Among them, about 14% of those who do not have obvious access to health care.
Instead, strains traditionally associated with community transmission are now found in health care, where they are considered to beacquired MRSA (HAMRSA)(CDC, 2008).
Regardless of oforigin, there are quite a number of cases leading to economic losses, loss of working or exercise time and mortality (
Jackson el, Jackson ehart, Jackson, Chiarello, 2006).
There are reasonable concerns about S. aureus throughout the community, especially in sports settings. CA-
A soft tissue and skin infection of S. aureus was found in volleyball, football, fencing, rugby and wrestling athletes (
Liang and Barkley, 2006;
Cohen and kurzlock, 2004).
In these outbreaks, sharing clothing, exercise equipment, towels, balm, lubricants, razor and soap, improper care of skin wounds, direct skin --to-
Skin contact with S. aureus damage, artificial lawn burns, and crowded living conditions are considered to be a risk factor for infection.
In addition to the sources listed, there are many other opportunities for transmission of CA-
S. aureus is credible.
In a sports training environment, the surface may be CA-without proper disinfection-
S. aureus for local communities.
The recent outbreak of CA-
It is reported that in addition to the more traditional health care environment, including outbreaks between sports teams (
CDC, 2002,200 3a, 2003b;
Cohen and kurzlock, 2004;
Lyndenmeyer, Sean Field, O\'Grady, Carney, 1998;
Marina, Mascola, and Bancroft, 2005).
High school athletes seem particularly exposed to CA-
Given their high risk of exposure to the above exposure routine or fom.
It is important to point out that most of the outbreak of S.
Acquisition of varieties, not health care products (
CDC, 2002,200 3a, 2003b;
Cohen and kurzlock, 2004;
Lindenmayer, etc. , 1998; Nguyen et al. ,2005).
However, this distinction is often not clear, and the text does not currently use a consistent definition of CA-MRSA. Salgadoand co-
The author reports for the CA-
Staphylococcus aureus infection (
Farr & Cal-Sargadofee, 2003).
Imprecision of defining CA
Among sports training clinicians, sanitarians, health departments and researchers, and among the more general population, including athletes themselves, the possibility that S. aureus allows case fusion.
This ambiguity further complicates CA-
People interested in controlling its spread
Therefore, a standardized, easily accessible assessment CA-
S. aureus will help to better determine its prevalence.
Although athletes are rarely hospitalized, many have outpatient surgery or visits to a doctor, rehabilitation, radiology or laboratory facility for evaluation and treatment.
These practices explain some of the situations in which S. aureus is transmitted from hospitals and clinics to sports venues and throughout the large community, further confusing CA-MRSA versus HA-MRSA.
For all of these countries, the assessment of exercise training operations and their associated facilities is important for the entire issue of CAMRSA.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of S. aureus in sports health facilities located in secondary schools in order to better describe the possibility of this surgery spreading S. aureus.
Methods maintain aseptic techniques and standard microbial preventive measures throughout the study (
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-
National Institute of HealthCDC-NIH], 2007).
Because there was no human test. i. e.
Collect environmental samples only)
According to the current institutional guidelines, the formal review and approval of the study by the institutional review committee is not required.
In ten rural high school sports training institutions in southeast Ohio, a sample survey of the prevalence of S. aureus was conducted.
Sampling for about two consecutive weeks during the winter sports season (
Basketball and wrestling.
Nine surface categories were extracted at each location.
The swab method is used to sample each surface in a uniform and consistent manner.
Each culture swab unit consists of an asterisk bag containing artificial silk
Tip swab applicator with non-nutrient transport medium and tubesheath (phosphate-
Soak Salt water in a reduced environment)
Place the swab into it after sampling to protect the collected bacteria from dry pressure during transportation.
According to good microbial technology, the key working surfaces in the laboratory are disinfected before and after use to avoid personal or cross-cuttingcontamination (CDCNIH, 2007).
All procedures involving the culture swab and the analysis plate of S. aureus comply with the manufacturer\'s guidelines (
2004 Picton, Dickinson;
2005 Picton, Dickinson;
Dickinson, 2008).
All inventory disks 8 【degrees]C--9[degrees]
C. be exposed to light at least and use before the due date.
The tests included direct sampling of the surface of each school\'s sports training clinic and adjacent facilities.
Each of the 10 schools inspected the same nine types of surfaces in all facilities.
For a sample of a given category (e. g.
, Faucet handle, shower handle)
, Composite sampling.
Immediately after sampling, the swab is transported to the laboratory and vaccinated to the MRSAassay tablet.
In most cases, the sample was vaccinated on the plate of S. aureus on the same day of sampling, and in all cases the plate was fixed within 24 hours of sampling.
Inoculation of tablets incubated in 35 [aerobic]degrees]C--37[degrees]C for 24 [+ or -]4hours.
If no positive colonies are restored during this period, then 24 more samples will be incubated [+ or -]
Check again after 4 hours
Lack of positive colonies after 48 [+ or -]
4 hours is considered a negative result. CHROMaga[TM]
By using [bbl], a positive plate for the detection of S. aureus was identifiedTM]m CHROMagar[TM]
Analysis board system (
Dickinson and the company\'s Picton).
Analytical plate chemistry is designed for the treatment, qualitative and direct detection of S. aureus (
2005 Picton, Dickinson;
Dickinson, 2008)
It is also allowed to carry out single board detection and identification of salmonella through specific hair color substrates and cefactin.
In the presence of cephalosporin, the strain of S. aureus will grow (
National Committee on Clinical Laboratory Standards, 2004)
Produce unique products
Colored colonies resulting from the hydrolysis of pigment substrates.
Additional proprietary and selective agents are combined to suppress the alpha-oxygen forest-
Sensitive S. aureus
Negative Organisms, yeast and some gramspositive cocci.
If the color-developing substrate is not used, the grown colonies will be displayed as white or colorless.
The positive results seen within 24 hours were detected within this time interval, which was 96% accurate for S. aureus (
Dickinson, 2008). If mauve-
In the first 24 hours, colored colonies were not detected, but within 48 hours it can be seen that the presence of S. aureus dropped to an accurate level of 93. 5%-94. 9% (Flayhart et al. , 2005).
As a result, S. aureus was detected on the surface of the sports training facility and the adjacent dressing room facility.
9 out of 10 (90%)
At least two places in the school sampled were positive for S. aureus (Table 1). Of all ninety (N = 90)
Samples collected, 42 (46. 7%)
Positive for S. aureus.
There is only one school, the first sampled school, which tested the presence of S. aureus.
Close to half of the positive facilities (4 of 9; 44%)
In the surface of the test, a positive result was produced for forgoldman.
The external performance of the water cooler is most common, with 80% positive in all schools (N = 10)
, Followed by 70% (Figure 1).
None of the school\'s sports training facilities have a house number that is positive for S. aureus.
It is observed that these doors are often held open, so contact may be limited on the sampling day.
In most of the facilities and many surfaces of the sports training clinic and adjacent facilities, the presence of S. aureus was observed.
In the comparison within each facility, 7 of the 9 surfaces of a school have evidence of S. aureus (78%)
And a single facility shows no (0%)
Positive discovery
These results indicate the widespread prevalence of S. aureus, but also suggest that effective environmental control of S. aureus is possible (i. e.
A school was not detected. .
However, we did not assess the overall cleanliness or hygiene of any facility, nor did we check the purification or cleaning products or procedures, and therefore it is not possible to relate the prevalence of S. aureus to these factors.
Of the nine schools carrying S. aureus, the bacteria had the highest detection rate on the surface of the water cooler (8/9)
, Treatment/table (7/9)
Leading handle of wash basin in dressing room (6/9)
Shower handle and locker room (5/9).
Although there is no obvious difference, there seems to be a small trend
Frequent recovery of S. aureus in non-patient use items (such as damp-heat units) in sports training clinics (4/9)
Containers of biological hazards (4/9)
Ice Machine (3/9).
The surface of the water cooler tested the highest S. aureus.
The area sampled is the lid of the cooler, the discharge nozzle and the outside.
Since the individual positive results of the cooler are obtained by combined sampling, it is not possible to state which of these locations are most frequently contaminated.
Often, many people come into contact with water coolers in sporting events and in practice, so this high usage rate is accompanied by an increase in the observed frequency of S. aureus, this means that health care workers should recommend a routine disinfection protocol for the cooler to prevent the growth of S. aureus bacteria.
Further control advice includes proper cleaning of the tape/treatment desk, which was found to be the second high frequency of S. aureus.
Given the potential of athletes to engage with such equipment for a long time and close, they may actually represent the maximum potential of international competitions
Athletes spread S. aureus in sports training facilities.
Only when there is an open wound, or when the user is prone to bad hygiene habits, less common contamination of the surface, such as the faucet handle may cause concern. [
Figure 1 slightly]
The sports training room is not the only facility to provide a suitable environment for S. aureus.
High traffic areas like lockroom are potential areas for the growth of S. aureus (
Liang and Barkley, 2006;
Cohen and kurzlock, 2004).
Our results confirm the possibility that the dressing room sink and shower handle have significant MRSAprevalence. The fourth-or fifth-
In the dressing room shower handle and sports training room sinkhandles, the detection rate of S. aureus was the highest, and 50% of the two classified surfaces were positive in nine facilities.
These findings suggest that even casual users of high school dressing rooms, such as physical education classes, are often exposed to the risk of the colonization of S. aureus.
Conclusion although these findings are only the result of a small number of observations, they reinforce the rational expectation that the most common in patients or athletes is S. aureus --
Contact surfaces for sports training room facilities.
Future studies may focus on the use of statistically effective sample numbers for the prevalence and control of S. aureus in sports training facilities water dispensers and treatment/Video tables.
These results suggest that sanitarians or public health officials should treat these places as possible protected areas for CAMRSA.
Accuracy of CHROMagar [TM]
The analysis system is the key to the effectiveness of these findings. With a 48-
The hourly accuracy rate is at least 94%, basically satisfying the lower limit of scientific acceptability of most practitioners (i. e.
Confidence of 95%).
With this accuracy in mind ,[TM]
There is hope that the system will clarify some definition confusion about the name of HA-MRSA versus CA-
When used by.
Due to the high prevalence of S. CICC in the facility studied, further studies are needed to better define and understand the occurrence of S. CICC in these environments, includes associations with specific movements, practices, or facilities that attempt to reduce or control the outbreak of MRSAoutbreaks.
It is worth noting, for example, that a separate facility has been tested free of charge for any of these strains.
Variation, cleanliness, the prevalence of S. aureus, and other factors can all account for this finding, but the actual cause may be finalized in a larger, more concentrated study.
The role of sterilized chemicals was not checked in this popular survey, but should be noted in future studies.
According to the knowledge of these jobs, it may be possible for CA-
More importantly, how to prevent the occurrence of S. aureus.
This may further assist health workers and public health officials in their efforts to keep the outbreak of S. aureus at its lowest level and to minimize or prevent transmission throughout the community.
These results further highlight the importance of CDC\'s universal preventive measures to avoid exposure to all types of health care facilities, including the highly specialized types of sports training facilities studied here.
School administrators should be encouraged to provide the facilities and equipment necessary to promote good hygiene, such as cleaning facilities and adequate supply of soap and towels.
Coaches and parents should encourage players to maintain good hygiene and show and practice proper hand cleaning (CDC, 2002).
Sports coaches are considered to be healthcare professionals who work with doctors to optimize patient activities and participate, especially those found in a secondary education environment.
Their roles include prevention, diagnosis and intervention of acute, chronic and emergency medical conditions involving impairment or disability.
In this case, they play a clear and critical role in the dissemination of CA-MRSA.
So the local sanitarians should be on CA-
Sports training professionals in particular. Key to CA-
Control of S. aureus is an education on its prevalence, possible location and host, transmission and risk factors.
Educational information should be reiterated to sports coaches, student athletes, parents and coaches that common precautions must be maintained not only in school settings, in order to minimize the risk of S. aureus, the same is true at home and throughout the community.
Reference beam, J. W. , & Buckley, B. (2006). Community-
Prevalence and risk factors of drug-resistant S. aureus
Journal of Sports Training, 41 (3), 337-340.
Picton, Dickinson and the company. (2004).
Product Center: BBL 【TM]Culture Swab[TM]
Liquid stuart medium, Liquid Amies medium, Cary-
Culture medium and sterile swab.
Retrieved from Becton, Dickinson and Company on January 15, 2008. (2005). BBL[TM]CHROMagar[TM]MRSA.
Retrieved from promotional flyer/ss_2729 to May 12, 2009.
Dickinson and the company\'s pdf Becton. (2008).
Product Center: BBL 【TM]CHROMagar[TM]MRSA.
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